The drilling rig is the main machine to complete the drilling construction. It drives the drilling tool and drill bit deep into the formation, and completes the auxiliary work of lifting and lowering the drill tool and casing, extracting the core, and replacing the drill bit through the elevator (winch) on the drilling rig. The main function of the pump is to deliver flushing fluid into the hole to clean the bottom of the hole, cool the drill bit and lubricate the drilling tool.
Due to the different purposes and construction objects of geotechnical drilling engineering, there are many types of drilling equipment. We can categorize them by application, such as core drilling rig, petroleum drilling rig, hydrogeological survey and water well drilling rig, engineering geological survey drilling rig, tunnel drilling rig and engineering construction drilling rig. In addition, the types of rig equipment can be divided into four categories according to the drilling method:
1. Impact drilling rigs are divided into wire rope impact drilling rigs and drill pipe impact drilling rigs.
2. Rotary drilling rigs are divided into the following three types:
(1) Vertical shaft drilling rig--handle feed drilling rig, spiral differential feed drilling rig, hydraulic feed drilling rig;
(2) Rotary disc drilling rigs-steel rope plus decompression drilling rig, hydraulic cylinder plus decompression drilling rig;
(3) Mobile gyroscopic drilling rig--full hydraulic power head drilling rig, mechanical power head drilling rig.
Among them, vertical shaft rigs are widely used. The vertical shaft rig series of the original Ministry of Geology and Minerals was named XY type. The vertical shaft rig series of the former Ministry of Metallurgical Industry was named YL (Ye Li) type. The Non-Ferrous Metals Industry Corporation's vertical shaft drilling rig series is named CS (Mountain Crossing) type. The vertical shaft rig series of the former Ministry of Coal Industry was named TK (Exploration) type.
3. Vibration drilling rig.
4. Compound drilling rig: a drilling rig in which vibration, impact, rotation, static pressure and other functions are combined together in different combinations.